Biology 4900 -- Entomology            Faculty Index Page
                                                    James K Adams,

Directions to John Lugthart's House for nighttime collecting -- Night to be determined
        You can arrive as early as 6:30 for a little daytime collecting as well.
Directions to Taylor's Ridge for collecting Buck Moths -- Time to be announced
        You should arrive mid morning (10:00).  Buck Moths typically fly until
        around 1:00 p.m., though may fly a bit later in good years.


Exam and quiz dates

Outline of the classification of arthropods and Entomological Terminology
        Newest understanding of arthropod relationships
        So, who is really related to whom in the Hexapods? Check out Figure 16.5 in your text

Collection Information

Bug of the Week

Tests on file in the library -- Click on the Biology tab and then the appropriate tests for 1224

Answers for tests on file in the Library:
        Test 1
        Test 2
        Test 3

Review Sheets
    Test 1:
        Week 1
        Week 2
        Week 3
        Week 4 -- Noninsect Hexapoda, Apterygota, Paleoptera
        Week 5 -- Orthopteroid Orders
    Test 2
        Week 6 -- Hemipteroid Orders
        Week 7 -- Neuropteroid Orders
        Week 7/8 -- Coleoptera
        Week 8/9 -- Hymenoptera
        Week 9 -- Mecopteroid Orders (including Diptera)
        Week 10 -- Lepidoptera
    Test 3
        Week 11 -- Internal Anatomy
        Week 12 -- Sense Organs;  link to "The Compound Eye"
        Week 12 & 13 -- Interactions with other organisms; includes Pest Management
                Vertebrate - Insect interactions:  Coloration -- crypsis, aposematism, mimicry
                Plant - Insect interactions:  Pollination
                Insect - Insect interactions:  phoresy, predation, parasitism (parasitoids)
    Test 4
        Week 14/15 -- Behavior and Communication, Circadian Rhythms, and Social Behavior
        Week 15 -- Seasonality and Thermoregulation

List of potential taxa for identification quiz

Lecture Images --
    Surface features
    External anatomy
    Molting (Chapter 3)
    Insect flight -- dragonfly wingbeat
             Flight in TINY insects
    Digestive System
    Respiratory System
    Circulatory System
    Reproductive structures (Chapter 4)
    Central Nervous System
    Interaction images --  See above under Week 12 & 13
    Muscular Thermogenesis -- Feralia major, a winter noctuid moth; video courtesy of Colby McHenry, Jan. 2017

Phylogeny of INSECTS (primitive hexapods not included)

Representatives of Orders, Suborders and Families of hexapods:   
    Pictures from many orders and many families
          Bug Guide at
    Page 1:
        Parainsecta (Proturans, Collembolans)
        Entognatha (Diplurans)   
        Apterygota (Archeognatha, Thysanura)
        Paleoptera (Ephemeroptera, Odonata)
    Page 2:     The Orthopteroid Orders
        Mantid eating vertebrate
        Mantophastmatodea -- this is an ORDER of insects discovered very recently (last ten years)
    Page 3:     The Hemipteroid Orders (excluding Heteroptera)
    Heteroptera -- Hemiptera:  see pages 8 - 13 in this very nice article
    Page 4:    A few more Hemiptera; Homoptera
            More at   
    From the Bug Guide (except for the "Georgia Lepidoptera" website):  All orders from here on are
        Neuropteroid orders (excluding beetles)
                Strepsiptera  (Twisted-winged parasites)
            Coleoptera (Beetles)     several pages
        Hymenopteroid orders:  Hymenoptera
        Mecopteroid orders:
            Mecoptera (Scorpionflies and Hangingflies)
            Diptera  (Flies)
            Siphonaptera  (Fleas)
            Trichoptera  (Caddisflies)
            Lepidoptera  (Butterflies and Moths)
                Georgia Lepidoptera (my website)
                Bug guide pages
Honeybee dance sample questions
Useful Websites with information and pictures:
        Discover Life -- Insects
        Tree of Life Website -- From the introductory page, click on the "Popular Pages"
                link, then on the "Insecta" link.  This website has nice introductory information
                and pictures for all hexapod groups; from the insect page, you can click on the
                "Other Hexapod" links to get to the Proturans, Collembolans and Diplurans
        Bug Guide -- great assortment of pictures for all orders and most families I have you
                know something about.


This course should be a LOT of fun! We will start with a discussion on what exactly makes and insect an insect, and what other groups of organisms are related to them. This will be followed by a brief discussion on why we should be interested in studying insects. I will then give a quick overview of some basic biological concepts that you would need to have to understand basic biology of any living creature. Then we will discuss the basics of external and internal anatomy (with a bit of physiology thrown in) of insects and metamorphosis. An overview of the major groups of insects will then follow, with extra laboratory discussion. The semester will end with more detail on the biology of insects, such as predatory defense, injurious and beneficial insects, chemical/visual communication and reproduction, and social behavior.

COURSE OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this course, you should be able to

1. Indicate the importance of entomology in terms of the impact on human lives.
        a. Indicate some examples of beneficial insects (pollination, food, silk, etc.)
        b. Indicate some examples of harmful insects (pests on: crops, wood, animals, us!)
2. Identify different classes of arthropods, and be able to indicate distinguishing characteristics.
3. Identify several (not all!) different orders and families of insects, and indicate some basic
        distinguishing characteristics.
4. Recognize and name basic external structures of insects.
5. Describe some of the basic internal systems and organs of insects
6. Understand the basics of metamorphosis, and indicate some insects that exhibit the different
        types of metamorphosis.
7. Indicate some mechanisms insects exhibit to defend themselves from predators.
8. Understand the importance of communication in insects, and how this is necessary for social
9. Use a dichotomous key for identification of not only insects, but any group of organisms.


It is important that you keep a few things in mind so that you may more easily succeed in Biology 1224.  First and foremost, if you have questions about any entomological topic we have discussed, ASK!! There is no better way to learn material that you are in any way confused by than to ask questions. Hopefully my lectures and the book will provide you what you need, but I can clarify anything you wish to have clarified. Speaking of the book, another way to insure success is to stay ahead in the reading. In other words, come to class prepared. This way you will likely be able to sit back and listen when I lecture, as you will have already read something on the topics being covered.

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