EVOLUTION  --  Biology 4250             Faculty Index Page
                                                    James K Adams, jadams@daltonstate.edu

Review Sheets:
    Test 1
          Constructing phylogenies
    Test 2 
    Test 3
    Test 4

Exam dates/due dates for assignments

Hardy Weinberg Problems
        Hardy Weinberg Answers

Tests on file in the library -- Click on the Biology tab and then the appropriate tests for 4250   

Projectable images:
        Evolution -- the REAL family tree
        Codon Table
        DNA Structure and Replication
        Transcription and Translation
    Sexual Selection

         Lapeirousia oreogena flowers
Growing in the Hantam National Botanical Garden (Glenlyon). South Africa, 8/2015. Copyright of Hendrik van Zijl. Courtesy of Hendrik van Zijl of Van Zijl, guesthouses on Nieuwoudtville Cape
Growing in the Hantam National Botanical Garden (Glenlyon). South Africa, 8/2015. Copyright of
Hendrik van Zijl. Courtesy of Hendrik van Zijl of Van Zijl, guesthouses on Nieuwoudtville Cape

         Oxpecker on an Impala:
I got an itch! An impala was spotted getting a head-rub by a red-billed oxpecker in South Africa's Kruger National Park

        Zonosemata vittigera and Phidippus apacheanus -- a picture winged fly and a jumping spider predator
            From:  Green, E., L. J. Orsak, D. W. Whitman.  1987. A tephritid fly mimics the territorial displays of its jumping spider predators.  Science, New Series, 236(4799): 310-312.

Brentha and Jumping spiders:

Coevolution:  Orchids and orchid bees

Allopatric Speciation:
Abert's and Kaibab's Squirrels and the Grand Canyon
Photobucket | 18_07.gif

A: Kaibab's (north rim)                                                B: Abert's (south rim)

Speciation Mechanisms:
Evolution.png (475×590) (cerealsdb.uk.net)

        Temporal Isolation:

                                                copyright James Adams, 2020
    These are three species of Callosamia, all found in Georgia.  Males are the top row, females are the bottom
row.  On the left is Callosamia securifera; in the middle is Callosamia promethea, and on the right is Callosamia
angulifera.  There are many places in the state where at least two of them can be found (both promethea and
angulifera are widespread) and may even be places where all three could be found.  The females all use the
same pheromone for attracting the males.  How do they stay separate?  They mate at different times of the day.
C. securifera mates around noon; C. promethea mates in the late afternoon; and C. angulifera mates only after
dark.  So, even though the females could theoretically attract males of the other species, they are kept separate
by different mating times.

        Hybrid Species:
Audbon's Warbler -- bb3a285b2b96cbb62cd359dfc3316700.jpg (1480×1600) (pinimg.com)

Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail --
The-distributional-ranges-and-hybrid-zones-of-tiger-swallowtails-and-the-hybrid.png (850×812) (researchgate.net)

New species by polyploidy from lateral gene transfer:
            produced in the lab -- http://www.the-scientist.com//?articles.view/articleNo/40859/title/Sexless-Hook-Up/

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE: This course introduces you to the basic fundamentals of the
concept of evolution. You will learn about the overwhelming evidence (both past and current) for
evolution, as well as the method by which evolution proceeds – mutation, followed by natural selection.
We will investigate the major mechanisms by which natural selection results in change, and how in turn
this results in organismal adaptations. We will then, in turn discuss how different adaptations in different
populations may result in new species – speciation – and how this explains the history of life on earth.
If time, we will end with a brief look at current research, particularly at the molecular level, as it applies
to evolution.

COURSE OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:

1. Define and use the concept of evolution in discussing relationships of organisms.
2. Describe the basic premises and process of natural selection, indicating why it is that it virtually
        must be true that organisms change through time.
3. Demonstrate an understanding of the main processes involved in evolution:
            mutation, selection (including sexual, kin, etc.), migration, drift
4. Demonstrate an understanding of the major possible mechanisms involved in speciation.
5. Describe why all organisms are related, and indicate what it means from an evolutionary
        perspective to say organisms are closely related.
6. Understand how to construct phylogenies (i.e., evolutionary trees of relationships).

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